Windowserves not only for letting in day light, providing fresh air and psychological bound with outer world. Window is also an important part of interior. A room without a window reminds of an antique sculpture of a man without pupils. From all parts of room (walls, floor, ceiling and doors) window has greatest number of functions.
Giving light is main function, and its effectiveness depends on size of window, design and its placement in room. It is all clear when we talk about width and height of window which influence quality of illumination: greater proportions are more light is let in by window. But it is not always useful to apply principle "the bigger better" to window because in this case it is important to remember about heat losses and bad acoustic isolation. It is thought that square of Windowshould be 1/6 or 1/8 from square of floor in room. distance from window to opposite wall is also important for even illumination. If room has a rectangular shape then window (if it is only one in room) should be in one of short walls. placement of window in wall also plays an important part in illumination: dissymmetric placement of window towards vertical axis of outer wall makes one of walls better lit than others; that should be taken into consideration while planning interior. A window, which is placed closer to floor than to ceiling, lights floor better, it means that visually it makes room look vertically smaller at day time. If window is placed too high above floor (0,80 - 1 meter between floor and Windowsill is considered normal) then space under window is not lit. A high but narrow window gives shades in corners of appertaining walls. Too wide apertures of window, which leave little space in outer wall, make it difficult to put furniture close to window. ability of window to let in light is influenced by crossbars, which can block about 20% of light. advices given below will help you to avoid mistakes in interior, which can be caused by peculiarities in sizes and placement of a window:
1. If window is dissymmetric towards vertical axis of wall where it is placed, then: while putting units, wardrobes and other massive furniture near wall with a window, one should chose wall which is father from window; it will help to even dissymmetric placement of window and irregularity of light in room: it is preferable to put carpets, pictures and other decor elements on a lighter wall, that is on one situated closer to window
2. In case window is situated low on floor level (lower than 80 cm) and far from ceiling (more than 50 cm), then: it is not recommended to have any furniture near wall where window is; materials of dark and matt shades should be used for flooring; furniture in such a room should not be too high.
3. In case window is situated high on floor level (higher than 1 meter), then: materials of light shades should be used for flooring, high and massive furniture should be better put near cross wall.
General rules. Do not put close to window polished furniture and furniture with many glass elements - specks from glass will skew exterior of furniture and tire your eyesight. Do not put high furniture (wardrobes with shelves) close to window in small rooms, no matter how it is situated - it visually draws nearer window.
Design features of Windows are seen functionally in thermal and sound isolation of building. main element here is first of all design of window. Window itself consists of case, fixed in aperture of window, and frame (frames) which is flexibly fixed to case. Frame (also crossbars) is resist holder for window glass and together they are called Windowsash. Extra rungs and stands are put into frame in Windows of old type to lessen square of glass in them.
Windowsash can be pivoted, vertically pivoted and sliding, it can also have, usually in upper part, a ventlight with a additional opening sash - small window.
Variants of a Windowsash:pivoted sash,vertically pivoted sash,sliding sash.
According to quantity of frames put in different levels there are Windows with single, double and duplex frames. Single frames usually have single or double (rarely triple) glazing. Window glasses are isolated from each other with air or vacuum layer in last type of single frames. These frames are called insulating glass units. Windows with double frames represent a construction with two parallel frames which open separately. These Windows are typical for apartment blocks of mass building. Duplex frames are two frames put into one whole frame which are joined with bolts. Duplex frame opens as one leaf.
Single frames are practically not used in apartment blocks in moderate climatic zones, as it is not able to prevent building from temperatures and noises of environment.
In this case vacuum insulating glass units are most effective. They are convenient in service (only outer surface of glass is washed), they need little space in aperture of window, they do not freeze and steam in winter, but they are much more expensive than double or duplex frames. Another big disadvantage of insulating glass units is that if one of glasses is damaged whole unit has to be replaced.
Duplex frames have nearly same functional features, but only on condition that they are fitted to each other properly. Otherwise, it will be necessary to clean them often from inside taking construction into peaces beforehand; undoubtedly no one will enjoy it. There are several main things in exploitation of duplex frames. inside surface of window and frame must be washed only in warn and dry weather, and it must be dried properly: it will prevent humidity from getting between glasses and as a result window will not have condensation or freeze in cold weather. Some substances which absorb water (adsorbents) should be put between glasses to prevent condensation of humidity; it can be absorbent carbon, sugar, salt wrapped in one or two sheets of gauze.
Windows with double frames represent simplest construction for glazing aperture of window. Suppose, most house owners are familiar with them, and there is no point in speaking about peculiarities of their exploitation. Their main disadvantage is that air can circulate between frames, and especially it concerns those frames which have small Windows.
As a result in winter there appears condensation from inside of window, and hard frost causes hoar on Windows, we call this phenomenon freeze-thaw action. There is only one possible way to avoid it - proper sealing of joints between frames and window case.
Only one recommendation can be given if we speak about freeze-thaw action in frames which have small Windows, which let outside and inside air circulate between glasses: it is necessary to close inside leaf of small window tightly after airing room.
Speaking about airing room. Single vertically pivoted frames are most suitable ones for it, and they should be fixed with hinges which should be on lateral axis of frame (as a result on same side of window case). If frame of such type is open then cold incoming and warm out coming air streams "do not push each other" in one aperture, but they circulate in different directions: first ones - through lower rend, second - thought upper one.
Wood used to be a traditional material for window cases and frames, but now it is driven out by plastic and metal. There is NO doubt that wood is not so durable and elegant as artificial materials and metal, but it is "warmer" and does not shrink or swell out because of different temperatures; it is an important feature if we talk about cold winters in temperate-continental and continental climate. Unfortunately because of ability to absorb water it can swell, so wooden frames (especially outside ones) which are influenced by weather should be taken special care of, and that is coloring them occasionally. Wooden frames are made mainly from pine, sometimes from spruce or larch.
Aluminum Windows are best of metal Windows. Aluminum Windows will serve almost forever, they look grand from outside, but from inside they are a little bit cold in literal sense of word and figuratively. With time, aluminum Windows fade because of air and rainfall effect, and that is why they should be cleaned and treated with special antioxidants. best variant to combine durability, elegance and warmth is to use Windows made from aluminum and wood.
From first sight it seems that plastic Windows do not have all minuses of wooden and metal Windows. But everything depends on quality of polymer materials and fillers used to produce window. Not all plastic used for Windows is able to protect properly from low outside temperatures and isolate room from cold air, and that is why they can not fully replace wooden Windows. But we have to admit that easy way of exploitation, elegant forms and pure color of plastic Windows cannot but buy our hearts. Only a rather high cost of plastic Windows keeps them from being widely used, but it can be said for sure that they have a great future ahead.